By Philip Carr
This pocket-sized alphabetical advisor introduces the diversity of phenomena studied in phonology and the most theoretical frameworks for undertaking phonological research. The entries are a concise and transparent review of 1 of the most components in linguistic research.
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Extra resources for A Glossary of Phonology (Glossaries in Linguistics)
In the Kwa language Igbo, the following sentence has a sequence of alternating high and low tones, marked here with the superscript diacritics ´ and `: o´ na` a´ŋ wa` u´nja` ´gwè (‘He is trying to ride a bicycle’). The last high tone, on the first syllable of ´gwè, is close in pitch level to the first low tone, on the word na`. Also known as declination. downstep A phenomenon found in tone languages, whereby a high tone has been lowered because of the effect of a preceding low tone which is not phonetically realised.
An example is the ‘ ’ diacritic used to denote aspiration in voiceless stops, as in the English word tip: [t p]. Some diacritics are superscript diacritics, such as the one we have just seen; they are written above the relevant symbol. Others are subscript diacritics; they are placed below the relevant symbol, as in the case of the diacritic for Advanced Tongue Root: [e] denotes an [e] with ATR. Some diacritics run through the symbols in question, as in the case of the velarisation diacritic used to represent ‘dark l’ and other velarised sounds; full in English is often transcribed as [fυ ], although the IPA now represents velarised consonants with a superscript diacritic: [fυl ] dialect see accent diphthong A vowel sound in which there is a transition from one vowel quality to another within a single syllable nucleus, as in the English word [ba] (buy).
In such languages, there will be other suffixes which are not dominant, as in [a-mυj-], where the aspectual suffix undergoes ATR harmony. Such suffixes are said to be recessive. dorsal A term used to describe sounds in which the body of the tongue (the dorsum) features. The term subsumes velar and uvular sounds. It is used as a feature in theories of distinctive features, and as a node in theories of feature geometry. 46 A GLOSSARY OF PHONOLOGY downdrift A phenomenon found in tone languages in which the tones become progressively lower as the utterance goes on, so that a word with a high tone which is uttered near the end of the utterance may have the same pitch, or even a lower pitch, than a word uttered with a low tone early in the utterance.
A Glossary of Phonology (Glossaries in Linguistics) by Philip Carr