By Alfred Sauvy (auth.)
It is hard for us at the present time to visualize that equivalent academic chance, with which we're so deeply preoccupied, was once at one time thought of to be if no longer an evil at the least a futile target, and that those that held such an opinion have been thoroughly insincere or even disinterested. For a vertically stratified society equality of schooling needed to be adversarial be reason it's going to disturb an equilibrium as very important as that of a construction. within the center a long time merely the Church used to be in a position to search for new contributors on the backside of the social ladder, in view that ecclesiastical place of work was once now not inherited by way of start. yet efforts during this course have been inevitably very restricted, whether basically as a result of the fabric hindrances to such an target. Equality of schooling, in addition to the other form of equality couldn't also be imagined by way of the aristocracy whose very lifestyles could were threatened. Its preliminary indifference used to be by means of lively competition. while it turned attainable to formulate the query of the diffusion of schooling, within the seventeenth and 18th centuries, the main itself met with a primary objection. The ruling classification, idle via its very nature, feared that the employees and particularly these at the land may abandon their efficient labours, now felt to be degrading, and swell the ranks of the parasites within the cities.
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Extra resources for Access to Education: New Possibilities
39 Indeed, for years now each country has tried to find means of increasing the opportunities of the most disadvantaged sectors of the population. Whilst continuing to take an applicant's intellectual level into account at the crucial moment of selection, other extraneous criteria are introduced which are often very difficult to measure: political and social interested in world progress. He must have an up-to-date knowledge of current affairs and be able to quote relevant writers. In other words applicants are systematically and implicitly judged in tenus of what they are required to become by the time they have left university.
This quota is fixed at around 60% for both these classes; the remaining 40% of places remaining open to the children of the intelligentsia or of small landowners. 0 Sources: J. " Anthropos 1969; Rocznik Statystyczny, 1968, 1971, p. 499 and 1972, p. 461. Starting at a level higher than that stipulated, the percentage of students of working class and peasant origin continually decreases as time passes, and the force of the initial impulse is lost, as if the inertia of the university system were acting as a brake.
Today we can see two unifying factors counteracting the relative heterogeneity of educational systems in the socialist countries. Firstly there is the pressure of the Soviet model, and probably this in the long run will tend to standardize different national methods. 15 In brief, and to conclude this rapid survey, we can discern in the upheavals of public education structures under socialist regimes two phenomena which are unequal but complementary. The primary and idelogical concern has been to rapidly improve the education of the previously underprivileged classes - working class and peasant class - but this aim very quickly came into conflict with the immediate demands of the economic structure for managers and technicians.
Access to Education: New Possibilities by Alfred Sauvy (auth.)