By Christos Evangeliou
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Extra resources for Aristotle's Categories and Porphyry
John and Bill left together. John and Bill are brothers. A man and a woman married yesterday. John and Bill got in on one ticket. Lines A and B are parallel. John and Bill are cousins. Red and blue flags are on the pole. No one but you can come to my party. I like no one but Bill. I like no one except Bill. Mary and Jane jointly bought a dress. I believe that Bill and Mary will be there. John and Mary sang, and they danced too. Post- and pre-modern art is always interesting. A few cities were mentioned, and I wanted to give the name of one, but it escaped me, although I know I spent two very pleasant days there.
Such focal stress has the effect of denying that just one of his friends came. 5 Symbolizing Logical Negations We now introduce a symbol for logical negation.
When should you add premises thought to be implicit, and when not? If, to save an argument, you would need to put into the mouth of its author beliefs he probably does not or would not hold, then the best course of action is to declare the argument invalid. Though much of the above explanation may seem abstract, you will find that you already have strong intuitions concerning which premise(s), or even which conclusion, is missing. On its face, for example, argument (25) is deductively invalid. 25.
Aristotle's Categories and Porphyry by Christos Evangeliou